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Glossary H-P



Hazelnuts - Also known as filberts or cobnuts.  Hazelnuts are enclosed in a brown shell and a dark brown, bitter, papery skin covers the ivory-colored meat.  Hazelnuts are used in making cakes, cookies, pastries, candies and their flavor complements that of chocolate.  Also used to make pastes and oils....More about Hazelnuts

Hot Cross Buns - This round, rich, sweet, yeast bun is traditionally served on Good Friday.  Made of milk, yeast, sugar, flour, spices (such as cinnamon, nutmeg, allspice, and cloves), eggs, butter, currants, raisins and/or candied fruit.  Hot cross buns are always marked with a cross (represents cross of Christ and the Crucifixion) on top that can be made by cutting into the dough, by strips of pastry, or with a paste of flour and water.  Once baked, they can be iced with confectioners frosting or fondant.  Superstition had it that hot cross buns baked on Good Friday never became moldy and one bun used to be kept as a charm until the next year's buns were made.  There are various stories as to when they were first made, but the story I like is related to the Anglo Saxons.  They are said to have baked the buns in honor of their goddess of Spring, Eostre, from whom the name Easter is derived.....Recipe for Hot Cross Buns


Icing - Americans tend to use the word 'frosting'.  Other countries tend to use the word 'icing'.  The name 'icing' probably has something to do with the fact that 'confectioners' or 'powdered' sugar is also known as 'icing' sugar.  Hence, combining icing sugar with other ingredients makes an 'icing'.  The fact is that 'frosting' and 'icing' are the same thing and food writers used them interchangeably.  There are numerous types of frostings (icings), both thick and thin, cooked and uncooked, starting with a simple mixture of powdered sugar and water, to beating hot sugar syrup into stiffly beaten egg whites.......More on Icing


Jam or Preserves - Jam and preserves are similar in that they are both a cooked combination of fruit and sugar (and sometimes pectin).  The difference being that preserves still contain chunks of fruit, whereas jam is more like a fruit puree. 


Knead - Pronounced (NEED).  A technique used in both bread making and pastries to combine and work a dough or mixture into a smooth and pliable mass.  In bread making, kneading the dough also develops the gluten strands in the flour so it adequately holds in the gases released by the leavener (yeast) to produce a bread with good volume and texture.  This technique can be done by hand, using the press-fold-turn action, or using a food processor or electric mixer with the dough hook. 


Ladyfingers - You may know them as Ladyfingers but these long finger- or oval-shaped cookies are also known around the world as Boudoir biscuits, sponge biscuits, sponge fingers, Naples biscuits, Savoy biscuits (Savoiardi) and biscuits a la cuiller.  Although these delicate sponge cookies can be eaten on their own as a petit four or as an accompaniment to ice creams, they really shine when soaked in a syrup and used as part of more complex desserts such as Tiramisu, English Trifles, or Charlottes.  

Ladyfingers are made from a sponge cake batter where the egg yolks and sugar are beaten together until thick, to which vanilla extract, sifted flour and beaten egg whites are folded in.  The batter is then piped into long finger-shaped cookies which are dusted with sugar before baking to give them a crisp sweet crust.  The batter contains more flour than most sponge recipes to make it thick enough to pipe.

Ladyfingers are very similar to Cat's Tongue Cookies (Langues-de-chat).....Recipe for Ladyfingers

Lemon Curd - Is an English specialty that was traditionally served with scones at afternoon tea.  It is a soft, thick, spreadable cooked cream that contains eggs, sugar, lemon juice, lemon zest, and unsalted butter.  The ingredients are first cooked together until quite thick and then cooled.  The curd will continue to thicken as it cools......Recipe for Lemon Curd

Lemons - A member of the citrus family (citrus limon) the lemon is an oval or oblong-shaped bright yellow fruit ranging in size from 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 cm) with a bulge at the blossom end.  When choosing lemons look for ones that are fragrant with brightly colored oily yellow skin, no green spots or blemishes, firm, plump, and heavy for their size.  Avoid lemons that have blemishes, soft spots, or are hard and wrinkled.....More on Lemons

Linzertorte - Linzertorte is one of Austria's most famous desserts.  Believed to have originated from the City of Linz, written recipes began to appear in the early 1700s.  Traditionally this torte consisted of a crust made with flour, ground nuts (traditionally almonds), sugar, egg yolks, spices and lemon zest that was filled with preserves (traditionally black currant) and then topped with a lattice crust. 

Liqueurs - Pronounced lih-KUHR or lih-KYOOR and are also known as crèmes.  Liqueurs are a sweet alcoholic spirit (brandy, rum or whiskey) that has been infused with a natural flavoring (fruit, herb, flower, nut, chocolate, spice, coffee, or seed).  The inferior liqueurs use artificial flavorings and should be avoided.  The flavors of liqueurs are quite pronounced and the rule of thumb is to use 1 to 2 tablespoons per cup of batter or sauce as you do not want the liqueur to overpower the rest of the flavors in the dessert.  It is a good idea to match the liqueur to the other ingredients in the dessert so the flavors match.  Liqueurs can be served as an after dinner drink and are also used in desserts, creams, fillings, mousses, soufflés, sauces, and in macerating fruit.  Below is a table listings some popular liqueurs and their flavors.  Also see eau-de-vie and brandy.

Flavor Liqueur
Almonds Amaretto (Italy) and creme d'amandes
Anise, Anisette Anis (Spain), Anise ( France), Pernod (France) , Pastis (France), Ouzo (Greece)
Apricot Creme d'abricot (France)
Banana Creme de banane (France)
Cherry Maraschino (Italy), Kirsch or Kirschwaser (Germany), Creme de Cerise (France)
Chocolate Creme de cacao (France)
Coffee Kahlua (Mexico), Tia Maria (Jamaica), Irish Cream (Ireland)
Currant, black creme de cassis (France)
Hazelnut Frangelico (Italy), Noisette (France)
Herbs, Flowers, Berries Chartreuse (France) - herbs, Benedictine (France) - herbs, spices and citrus peel, Drambuie (Scotland) - whisky, honey & herbs
Melon Midori (Japan)
Orange Cointreau (France), Curacao (Netherlands), Grand Marnier France), Mandarine Napoleon (France, Italy), Triple Sec (France)
Pear Poire Williams (France, Switzerland)
Peppermint/Mint creme de menthe (France), peppermint schnapps
Pineapple creme d'ananas
Plum prunelle (France) ; sloe gin (US and Britain)
Vanilla Beans creme de vanille (France)
Walnut Nocello, Nocino, Nocciole (Italy)


Macadamia Nut - A small, round, ivory-colored nut, resembling a chickpea, it has a hard brown shell that is difficult to crack.  Because of this most macadamia nuts are sold shelled, either raw or roasted.  The softly crunchy, sweet buttery-rich taste complements the flavors other tropical nuts and fruits as well as white chocolate.  Macadamia nuts add flavor and texture in both sweet and savory dishes.  One of the more expensive nuts, their high fat content makes them prone to turning rancid.  Store in the refrigerator or freezer up to one year in airtight containers or plastic bags...More about Macadamia Nuts

Madeleines - Made famous by Marcel Proust in his novel 'Remembrance of Things Past'.  A combination of butter, sugar, eggs, flour, and traditionally flavored with lemon or orange flower water, these small petit fours sec are often times dipped in tea or coffee.  Instantly recognizable by their classic shell shape which is achieved by pouring the batter into special oval shaped molds with ribbed indentation.......More on Madeleines

Maple Syrup - Pure maple syrup is a reddish-brown aromatic liquid that has a distinctive rich sweet flavor produced from the sap of maple trees grown in Canada and the Northeast United States.  The syrup is graded by its color and flavor i.e. the darker the color, the stronger the flavor.......More on Maple Syrup

Marble Cake - Marble Cakes are made with two different colored batters that are swirled together just before baking.  This produces a cake that has a marbled appearance.  Recipes for this type of cake appeared in the United States and Canada around 1870.......Recipe for Marble Cake

Marsala Wine - Is a rich, smoky flavored fortified wine from Italy that can be sweet or dry.  Used in making Tiramisu.

Mascarpone - pronounced mas-kahr-POH-nay.  It is a soft unripened cheese that belongs to the cream cheese family. It comes from Switzerland and Italy and is a thick, buttery-rich, sweet and velvety, ivory-colored cheese produced from cow's milk that has the texture of clotted or sour cream.  It delicate and mild flavor is great with fresh fruit and is probably best known for its use in Tiramisu.  Produced mainly in the fall and winter it is sold in plastic 8 ounce tubs and can be found in specialty food stores and in the deli section of some grocery stores.

Melting Moments - A cookie so named because they seem to literally "melt-in-your-mouth".  They are a rich and buttery cookie that is rolled in confectioners' sugar (powdered or icing) after baking.  They are traditionally round in shape (like snowballs) but can also be formed into crescents.   Similar in taste, minus the nuts, to Mexican Wedding Cakes.......Recipe for Melting Moments

Meringue - Pronounced muh-RANG.  Simply a beaten mixture of egg whites and sugar (sometimes with cream of tartar), that are baked in a slow oven to produce a delicately crisp, white confection that seems to literally melt in your mouth.  There are two types of meringue; soft and hard.  The difference between the two is the amount of sugar added to the egg whites.  Soft meringue is made with only a small amount of sugar.  The whites and sugar are beaten only to the soft peak stage and is then used as a topping for pies and cakes, puddings, mousses, and the famous Baked Alaska.  The meringue is baked until the peaks are browned and the valleys are lightly browned.

Hard meringue has a larger proportion of sugar to egg whites than a soft meringue.  Hard meringues are beaten until stiff peaks form.  The meringue is then placed in a piping bag and piped into various shapes; a round shape with a depression in the center so the baked meringue can be filled with fruit, cream, custard, ice cream, chocolate, or into hearts, shells, disks, mushrooms, and cookies. 

When making a meringue the egg whites should be at room temperature and free of any specks of egg yolk.   Make sure the bowl and beaters are clean and free of grease to obtain maximum volume.  Superfine sugar makes for a smoother meringue as it is easier for the sugar to dissolve.  To make your own take granulated white sugar and process in your food processor until very fine (about 30 seconds).  Adding the sugar gradually to the egg whites ensures that the sugar completely dissolves and does not produce a gritty meringue.  A test to see if the meringue is done is to rub a little of the meringue between your thumb and index finger.  It should be smooth,  not gritty.  If it feels gritty the sugar has not fully dissolved so keep beating until it feels smooth between your fingers.  Cream of tartar is tartaric acid and is a fine white crystalline acid salt which is a by-product of the wine making industry.  It is used in the whipping of egg whites to stabilize them and allow them to reach maximum volume.  Hard meringues are baked in a slow oven to allow the evaporation of the moisture out of the meringues slowly.  If the oven temperature is too high, the outside of the meringue will dry and set too quickly.  You will end up with the inside of the meringue being chewy and sticky instead of dry, crisp and crunchy.  You will also notice the outside of the meringue separates from the inside.  If you make meringues on a rainy or humid day, you will probably have to bake the meringues longer than on a dry day.  If your meringue starts to brown, the oven temperature is too high causing the sugar to caramelize.  To prevent cracking of the meringues, do not open the oven door during the first half to three quarters of the baking time. 

Mexican Wedding Cakes - Also known as Russian Tea Cakes.  Many countries have their own name for this delicious white ball of buttery melt-in-your-mouth shortbread-like cookie.   Butter, confectioners (icing) sugar, finely chopped nuts (pecans, almonds, walnuts, or hazelnuts), flour and vanilla extract are combined and rolled into balls.  Once baked the warm cookies are rolled in confectioners sugar and then rolled again in the sugar when cooled.  Traditionally served at weddings, Christmas, and other festive occasions....Recipe for Mexican Wedding Cakes

Milk Chocolate - Milk chocolate contains chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, vanilla, milk solids, and lecithin.  Milk chocolate must contain 10% chocolate liquor, 3.7% milk fats, and 12% milk solids.  It contains less chocolate liquor than dark chocolate and therefore does not have as pronounced a chocolate flavor.  The quality of milk chocolate varies from brand to brand with European brands usually of higher quality.  The better brands contain a higher percentage of cocoa liquor.  Look for brands that contain pure ingredients, no artificial flavorings.  European milk chocolate generally contains condensed milk, whereas American and British milk chocolate contains a milk and sugar mixture.   Should be smooth on the palate with no greasy after taste.....More about Milk Chocolate

Mince Pies - Mince pies have been around for centuries although not in the form we enjoy today.  In the past mincemeat did, in fact, contain meat (beef, chicken, or fish) along with eggs but the dried fruit and spices were secondary flavors in the pie.  Over time, beef suet came to replace the meat and today mincemeat is thought of as a spicy preserve consisting of a mixture of dried and candied fruits, nuts, apples, and spices (with or without beef suet) that is heavily laced with brandy or rum.   Maura Laverty tells us in her 'Feasting Galore - recipes & food lore from Ireland' that mince pies do have some biblical references.  It seems they were once made in cradle shaped tins in memory of the Christ Child's manger and the spices added to the mincemeat were a commemoration of the gifts given by the Three Wise Men.....Recipe for Mince Pies

Mixing - A technique for blending, stirring, or combining two or more ingredients until they are evenly distributed throughout the mixture.  Can use an electric mixer with paddle attachment, blender, food processor, wooden spoon, or whisk. 

Modeling Chocolate or Chocolate Plastic - This is a pliable chocolate paste made from just two ingredients, chocolate and corn syrup.  It has the texture of a tootsie roll or marzipan and is very easy to work with.  It can be used to make ropes, braids, ribbons, ruffles, flowers, or leaves.  Can be made with bittersweet, semi-sweet, milk or white chocolate.....Recipe for Modeling Chocolate

Molasses - There are two types of molasses generally used in making gingerbread: light and dark.  Light molasses, used in this recipe, comes from the first boiling of the sugar syrup and is lighter in flavor and color than the dark molasses.  Dark molasses comes from the second boiling and is darker in color with a more robust flavor.  Molasses is usually labeled as "sulphured" or "unsulphured" depending on whether sulphur was used in the processing.  The unsulphured molasses is lighter in color and tends to have a nicer flavor.  Molasses is used in baked goods to add color, moistness and flavor.  Note:  To prevent the molasses from sticking to the measuring cup, first spray the cup with a non stick vegetable spray (like Pam).

Mousse - Is a French word that means 'froth' or 'foam'.  Defined as a rich, light and fluffy, creamy and smooth confection that can be sweet or savory, and hot or cold.  Sweet mousses are usually served cold and are made with chocolate or fruit purées (gelatin can be used to set the mousse).  Chocolate mousse is usually made with egg yolks (and sometimes unsalted butter), whereas lighter fruit mousses contain egg whites and cream.....More on Mousse

Muffin - Comes from the French word moufflet, meaning a soft bread.  There are two types of muffins: English and American.  English Muffins are made from a yeast dough that is formed into rounds, cooked on a griddle, toasted, split and buttered.  They are relatively flat with a golden-brown top and bottom and a light, spongy interior.  American Muffins are made with a chemical leavening agent (baking powder or baking soda) and are a cross between a cake and a bread.....More on Muffins


Nuts  - Technically, acorns, chestnuts and hazelnuts are the only "true" nuts.  Almonds, brazils, cashews, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pinenuts, pistachios and walnuts are "seeds".  The term "nut" has now been broadened to include the seeds.  Nuts are the edible fruit from trees or bushes that are enclosed in a shell, of varying degrees of hardness, which serves as a protective coating from predators.  Inside the shell of each nut is one edible kernel.  The outer skin of the nuts is usually bitter but can be removed by blanching or toasting.   Toasting the nuts in the oven also enhances the nut's buttery flavor and gives them a golden color with added crunch.....More on Nuts


Oats - A cereal grain that is rich and flavorful and comes in many forms.  Very popular in Northern Europe, Scotland and Ireland.  Oats to be consumed by humans are cleaned, toasted, hulled to  become what we call oat groats.  The oat groats are then steamed and flattened to become rolled oats or old-fashioned oats.  They take about 15 minutes to cook.  Old-fashioned rolled oats are not to be confused with quick-cooking rolled oats.  These are oats have been cut into pieces before being steamed and rolled into thinner flakes.  They cook quickly, about 5 minutes, but their flavor and texture are a little different than old-fashioned rolled oats. There is another type of oats and they are called steel-cut oatmeal. Steel-cut means the oats are 'cut' not 'rolled', so instead of flakes of oats you have tiny hard bits of golden oatmeal (think of mini rice particles).

Oranges -Oranges are native to China and SE Asia but are now grown in temperate climates throughout the world.  There are two types of oranges, the sweet and the bitter.  Bitter oranges, the Seville and Bergamot being the most popular, are not eaten raw so you will not see them in stores.  They have a dry pulp, thick rind, are sour tasting and are grown and valued for their peel.   The peel is used to make marmalades, jams and jellies.  The oils from the peel are used in making liqueurs, such as Grand Marnier and Cointreau.

The Sweet Orange is what you see in grocery stores.  The most popular are the Navel, Valencia and the Blood Orange.  Their yellow to orange colored rind encloses a juicy segmented pulp that can range in flavor from sweet to tart.  They are used to make orange juice, to be eaten out of hand, and in cooking and baking.  Oranges are available year round, depending on the variety.  Some are seedless while others have seeds, their size can range from small to softball size, and their rind can be thin to thick.  The blood orange is different in that it has a very distinctive red colored flesh and juice with a flavor that makes you think of berries.  Some consider it the world's finest dessert orange.

When choosing oranges look for ones that are heavy for their size with no mold or soft spots.  Because some oranges are sprayed with a vegetable dye, color is not a good indicator of quality.  The color of the orange depends on the weather and some green is natural.  Rough brown spots (called russeting) does not affect flavor or quality.  Oranges in the United States are graded either US Fancy (the best) or US No. 1. 


Pancakes - a popular cake throughout the world that comes in many forms.  Can be thin (crepe) to thick (American) and either sweet or savory.  The batter is poured in rounds onto a hot griddle or frying pan and cooked on both sides.  Can be eaten flat or rolled with a filling.  Traditionally served on the day before Lent or Passover (Shrove Tuesday)......Recipe for Pancakes

Panforte - Pronounced pan-FOHR-tay.  This Italian Christmas Cake comes from Siena Italy and also goes by the name Siena Cake.  It is a rich, candy-like textured cake filled with nuts, candied peel, cocoa, and chocolate held together with a boiled syrup made from sugar and honey.  Traditionally Panforte is baked in a round pan that has been lined with communion wafers (to make it easier to remove) which seems to indicate a religious connection.  History does tell us that Panforte dates from the 12th century and, although stories differ, most agree that Nuns (hence the use of communion wafers) were the first to make this delicious bread.....Recipe for Panforte

Pate Brisee  Pronounced paht bree-ZAY.  It is a French short crust pastry dough made from a mixture of flour, a little sugar, salt, butter, and ice water.  It has a high ratio of fat to flour which gives the pastry its crumbly texture and buttery flavor.  Used in both sweet and savory pastries.......Recipe for Pate Brisee 

Parfait - French for perfect, technically a parfait is a frozen custard dessert made with eggs, sugar, whipped cream and flavorings such as a puree, liqueur, coffee, or chocolate that is placed in a mold, similar to a bombe.  An American parfait has evolved to mean a dessert consisting of ice cream layered with flavored syrups or fruit and whipping cream that is topped with more whipping cream, nuts and a Maraschino cherry.  It is served in a tall narrow glass so the layers are clearly visible.

Pavlova - In the 1930's an Australian chef, Herbert Sachse,  invented this dessert when a soft meringue cake was requested for an afternoon tea at the hotel where he worked.  This meringue cake, with its unusual soft sweet marshmallow center and light, delicate, and crisp crust, is produced by folding a little vinegar and cornstarch (cornflour) into the egg whites and sugar mixture once they are stiffly beaten.  When cooled, softly whipped cream and fresh fruit (kiwi, raspberries, strawberries, passion fruit) are mounded in the center of the meringue.  The name, Pavlova, was chosen in honor of the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova, who visited Australia in the 1920s.  Although Australia is credited with inventing this dessert, New Zealand also lays claim to it as a similar dessert was being served in that country around the same time as it was said to have been invented in Australia......Recipe for Pavlova

Peaches - The peach belongs to the Rose family (Prunus) and is classified as a stone fruit or drupe.  An aromatic sweet and juicy medium-sized round fruit with a downy thin skin, the peach ranges in color from a red-blushed yellow gold to a pink-blushed creamy white (depends on the variety).  A succulent orange, yellow or white flesh surrounds a hard central wrinkled stone or pit that is sometimes cracked open to reveal the seed or kernel.  Peaches are divided into two classifications:  'Clingstone' and 'Freestone', with many varieties within each classification.  The names (Clingstone and Freestone) refer to how easily the flesh of the peach separates from the stone.  The Clingstone is exactly that - the flesh clings stubbornly to the central stone or pit.  On the other hand, the Freestone's flesh is easily separated from the stone....More about Peaches

Pecans - Pecans, named pakans by Algonquin Indians because of their hard shell, are a native American nut.  A smooth, reddish-brown, one-inch (2.54 cm) long oval shell encloses two golden-brown crinkled lobes with ivory-colored meat.  Pecans have a buttery, soft-textured, slightly bittersweet taste that is enhanced when toasted.   Pecans are used in pastries and desserts such as the famous Southern pecan pie, quick breads, cakes, cookies, candies, pralines and ice creams....More about Pecans

Pinch or Dash - As in "a pinch or dash of salt".  This is an inexact measuring term referring to a very small amount of a dry ingredient that can be held between the tips of your thumb and forefinger.  This is used when the amount of the ingredient needed is so small that it really is irrelevant to the recipe.  Technically, you could say its volume is somewhere between 1/16 and 1/8 of a teaspoon.

Pine Nuts - Pine nuts are also known as Pignoli, pine kernels, or piñon.  They are the 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) ivory-colored seeds inside the pine cones of pine trees.  The pine nut is expensive because the  extraction of the nuts from the pine cones is very labor intensive  Cultivated in Africa, India, Italy, China, Mexico and the United States, there are two main types: Mediterranean and Chinese.  The Mediterranean or Italian pine nut comes from the stone pine tree.  It is torpedo-shaped and has a sweet, delicate flavor.  It is the more expensive of the two types.  The Chinese pine nut has a stronger flavor with a teardrop shape....More about Pine Nuts

Piping - A technique where you first place an ingredient or mixture (frosting, buttercream, whipped cream, meringue, melted chocolate, cake or cookie batters, etc.) into a pastry bag fitted with a pastry tip, and then pipe this mixture into the  desired sizes and shapes or decorative designs.

When piping, first place the filling (frosting, meringue, etc.) into the wide end of a conical-shaped pastry bag that has been fitted at the narrow end with a pastry tip.  To do this; fold down the wide end of the pastry bag to create a cuff.  Fill the bag about halfway with the filling, making sure you do not fill the bag too much or it will leak out when it is closed.  Once sufficiently filled, unfold the cuff and gently press the filling until it is down at the tip end.   Close the bag by twisting just above the filling to release any trapped air.  To begin piping, hold the bag, with the hand you write with, just above where you twisted it, and, with your other hand, support the bag just above the pastry tip.  Tilt the bag at a 45 degree angle, and with steady even pressure, force the filling out of the bag to create your shape or design.  Be patience with this technique, as this may take a little practice to learn how to hold the bag properly and how to pipe with an even steady pressure. 

Pistachio Nuts - The tan shell of the pistachio nut is almost impenetrable before the nut matures.  Once it ripens though, the shell cracks open to reveal a delicate, sweet flavored, soft- textured, pale green and purple nut with a papery reddish-brown skin.  The pistachio nut used to be dyed a glaring pink-red so the nut would stand out (do not use this type in baking).  Today they are still sold this way but can also be found in their natural state.  Pistachios are used in both sweet (cookies, breads, ice creams and as a garnish) and savory dishes (particularly Middle Eastern, Mediterranean and Indian cuisines)......More on Pistachio Nuts

Popovers - Similar to Yorkshire Pudding and can be sweet or savory.  Has a muffin-shape with a crisp brown outside and moist, almost hollow inside.  The thin batter contains no chemical leavener and as the batter bakes it creates steam that leavens the bread.  Baked in muffins tins or a 'popover' pan its name comes from the fact that the batter "pops over" the sides of the pan as it bakes. 

Pound Cake - The pound cake originated several centuries ago in England from yeast leavened bread-like cakes.  The name comes from the fact that the original pound cakes contained one pound each of butter, sugar, eggs, and flour.  No leaveners were used other than the air whipped into the batter.  These cakes were rich and dense.  By the mid 1800's pound cake recipes began to deviate slightly from the original formula to make a lighter cake.  Some recipes even contained a liquid, such as alcohol or rose water.  It wasn't until the 20th century that artificial leaveners (baking powder/soda) were added.  Today, pound cakes use different proportions of the same ingredients as the original formula to produce a lighter cake.......Recipe for Pound Cake

Preserves or Jam - Jam and preserves are similar in that they are both a cooked combination of fruit and sugar (and sometimes pectin).  The difference being that preserves still contain chunks of fruit, whereas jam is more like a fruit puree. 

Pumpkins - Fall is harvest time for pumpkins, that spherical-shaped orange winter squash belonging to the gourd family that can range from the size of an apple up to hundreds of pounds.  Its flat top and base, hard fluted shell, and thick ridged stem encase a yellow-orange flesh entwined with flat ivory-colored seeds (called pepitas).  Best known and used in North America for making Halloween jack-o-lanterns and other festive decorating.  Its earthy tasting flesh is used to make pumpkin puree which can be used in both sweet and savory dishes, most notably pumpkin pies which are traditionally served at Thanksgiving.  Colonists, on arriving to North America, found Indians growing pumpkins and the origin of pumpkins and other squashes date back thousands of years....More about Pumpkins

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